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FROM RURAL TO URBAN: THE NIGERIAN PHYSICAL PLANNING DILEMMA
JULIUS AJILOWO BAYODE OLUJIMI, Liberty News, . Date & Time Filed on MyOndoState.Com: 2011-10-22 11:50:01
FROM RURAL TO URBAN: THE NIGERIAN PHYSICAL PLANNING DILEMMA - being text of the Inaugural Lecture delivered by Prof. JULIUS AJILOWO BAYODE OLUJIMI Ph.D, FNITP, RTP, a Professor of Urban & Regional Planning at the Federal University of Technology, Akure.
Deputy Vice-Chancellors (Academic and Development),
Other Principal Officers of the University, Deans, Directors, and Heads of Departments, Fellow Academic and Professional Colleagues,
My Lords Spiritual and Temporal,
Distinguished Guests and Friends of the University,
Gentlemen of the Press,
Distinguished ladies and Gentlemen,
Today is God's appointed day; the day that the LORD has made. I will rejoice and be glad in it. It is with immense gratitude to the Almighty God and a great privilege for me that I stand before you to deliver the 63rd Inaugural Lecture of the Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. This Inaugural Lecture is the third in the Department of Urban and Regional Planning; since Professor D. O. Olanrewaju delivered the first in 2004 and Prof. J.O. Fasakin in 2006; and it is the seventh from the School of Environmental Technology.
I started my academic career 29 years ago when I joined the services of the then Ondo State Polytechnic, Owo on September 21st 1982 as Lecturer III but developed my research interest in rural planning when I went for my Master Degree in Urban and Regional planning at the University of Ibadan, Ibadan in September 1986. This period coincided with the period when the Nigerian government started developing serious interest in addressing the problems of rural dwellers with the establishment of the Directorate of Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructure (DFRRI). I have since then been conducting human settlement studies with particular focus on rural planning and physical planning administration. This has influenced the choice of the title of this inaugural lecture and it is ‘From Rural to Urban: The Nigerian Physical Planning Dilemma’. The task before me today is not only to present the report of my research efforts so far on the subject area but also to chart a new course for the development of the discipline in the years ahead, particularly as it affects Nigeria and Nigerians.
The lecture is divided into seven sections. After this introduction, is the section which examines the emergence of human settlement as a prelude to the third section that identifies and explains three different concepts that are germane to the understanding of the nitty gritty of the lecture. This is followed by section four that discusses migration and urbanisation trend in Nigeria. Section five makes an assessment of the Nigerian physical planning experience starting with the evolution of physical planning while section six presents my research efforts at resolving the physical planning dilemma. In section seven, presents concluding remarks and gives specific recommendations for the improvement of physical planning in Nigeria with emphasis on both rural and urban areas.
2.0 EMERGENCE OF HUMAN SETTLEMENT
The emergence of Man and human settlement can be examined from two different perspectives. The first is the biblical evolution of man and settlement while the second is the historical evolution as exposed in the history of the World.
2.1 Biblical Evolution of Man and Settlement: The existence of Man on the planet Earth can be traced to God; whose marvellous work of creation lasted for six days as authoritatively documented in the HOLY BIBLE (Genesis chapter 1 verses 1 – 31) herein quoted in part from New King James version:
In the beginning, God created the heaven and the earth:
Then God said let the waters under the heavens be gathered
together into one place, and let the dry land appear, and
it was so. God called the dry land earth, and the gathering together
of the waters he called seas. And God saw that it was good…V10
Then God said let us make Man in our image according to our likeness…V26
So God created man in his image and he created him male and female.
Then God blessed them and God said to them "be fruitful and multiply;
fill the earth and subdue it; have dominion over" V28.
At the end of creation therefore, the statement left no doubt as to the state of the earth then, thereby concluding that "God saw all that he had made and it was very good" i.e. the entire environment then was good, peaceful and beautiful. The positions of the Quran chapter 54 verse 4 and the traditionalists are not different from that of the HOLY BIBLE on the state of the earth at the time of creation (Olujimi, 2009a).
Further in Genesis chapter two of the Holy Bible, the Lord God formed (i.e. created) man and put him in the Garden of Eden (settlement) and God gave man specific instructions (rules) guiding his activities in the garden as well as the repercussions (sanctions) that would accompany his disobedience. It was confirmed in Genesis chapter three that Man disobeyed God and went against the rules and regulations laid down for him to enjoy the unlimited benefits of the garden (i.e. his environment) and he was sanctioned.
Thus, Man was left to labour relentlessly in exploring and exploiting his environment to meet his numerous needs, in form of shelter (housing), movement (transportation), food (agriculture), providing for working tools and equipment (industrialisation), seeking for good health care (health facilities), and a host of others. The essence of this preamble is to show that ever before the creation of man, the environment was crisis-free and beautiful. The introduction of Man into the environment was accompanied with rules and regulations guiding his activities; and sanctions were attached to disobedience of these regulations. This is the tenet on which physical planning is religiously operating. The fruitfulness and multiplication of the original 2-person settlement (i.e. the Garden of Eden) had metamorphozised into arrays of settlements that range from varying categories of rural settlements to urban settlements world-wide.
Today, the quest of Man to provide for himself these (unlimited) needs is manifesting at different levels and scales; and associated with their attendant problems on the environment. In order to enjoy all these benefits in our environment; the environment must be properly managed to achieve sustainable development. One of the basic means of managing our environment is through physical planning commonly referred to as ‘’Town Planning.’’
2.2 Historical Evolution of Man and Human Settlements:
Mr Vice-Chancellor Sir, even when many in the audience may claim to belong to one religion or the other; it is very likely that a few that may disagree with this Biblical evolution of Man and human settlement. Therefore, permit me to intimate the audience with the historical evolution of man and his settlement. Man is an organism and his environment that harbours his settlements includes all things, living and non-living, which influence his life (Imevbore, 1972, Olujimi, 1990). The study of Man's relationship with his environment dates back to the time of his emergence as the dominant specie on earth. What will readily come to mind is the emergence of the 'early man'
Human prehistory began in the Palaeolithic Era or Early Stone Age by the appearance of homo sapiens on Earth. Homo sapiens first arose on the Earth between 400,000 and 250,000 years ago during the Palaeolithic period (Wikipedia, 2011). This occurred after a long period of evolution. Ancestors of humans, such as homo erectus had been using simple tools for many millennia but as time progressed, tools became far more refined and complex. At one point, humans began the use of fire for heating and cooking. Humans also developed languages in the Palaeolithic period as well as a conceptual repertoire that included systematic burial of the dead and adornment of the living. During this period, all humans lived as hunters, gatherers, and were generally nomadic. Therefore, there was no record of the establishment of any settlement or city ‘per se’ during the period.
Cradles of Civilization.
The Bronze Age is part of the three-age system (Stone-Age, Bronze Age, and Iron-Age) which for some parts of the world describes effectively the early history of civilization. During this era, the most fertile areas of the world saw ‘’city states’’ and the first civilization developed. These were concentrated in particular fertile river valleys. These are Rivers Tigris and Euraphates in Mesopotamia, the Nile in Egypt, the Indus in South Asia, and the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers in China.
The Agricultural Revolution began about 8,000 BCE which saw the development of agriculture. Agriculture also created food surpluses that could support people not directly engaged in food production (Tudge, 1998). The development of agriculture permitted the creation of the first cities. These were centres of trades, manufacturing and political power with nearly no agricultural production of their own. These cities established a symbiosis with their surrounding country sides (i.e. rural), absorbing agricultural productions and providing in return manufactured goods and varying degrees of military control and protection (Chandler, 1987).
The scientific revolution changed Man’s understanding of the World and led to the industrial revolution, a major transformation of the World’s economies. Without necessarily going into the historical details, the world’s economies today have impacted in one form or the other on every settlement on the globe; ranging from the remotest village such as Awule (a village located very close to FUTA) to the World renown mega-city of New York, in the United State of America.
3.0 CONCEPTS OF RURAL, URBAN, AND PHYSICAL PLANNING.
3.1 Rural Concept.
The problem of defining 'rural' is not new. People know when they are rural particularly as reflected in the backwardness of their behaviour (i.e. 'ara oko'), but such perception does not sufficiently satisfy the needs of demographers, policy makers, physical planners and educational researchers among others. Rural is a concept that goes beyond mere definition. ‘Rural’ was first used by the United State (US) Bureau of the Census in 1874, when it was defined as indicating the population of a country exclusive of any city or town with 8,000 or more inhabitants (Whitaker, 1982). Modified over the years by the 1980 census, a specific definition of rural had been dropped. Instead, the urban population was defined as all persons living in urbanised areas and places of 2,500 or more located outside rural areas; all population not classified as urban constitutes the rural population (US Bureau of Census, 1983). To further complicate matters, the Farmers Home Administration in the US considers rural areas to be open country communities of up to 20,000 in non-metropolitan areas and towns of up to 10,000 with a rural character (US Department, 1980).
Mr. Vice-Chancellor sir, if the US Bureau of the Census found it difficult to give a straight-forward definition of rural, one can begin to wonder the reasons that are responsible for the difficulties. The word ‘rural’ conjures different meanings to different people depending on their background. Given certain criteria, what is regarded as rural in developed countries may well be referred to as urban in most developing countries considering the level of infrastructural facilities available in them. Rural areas cannot be defined in isolation of urban areas. While both of them represent a geographical space within which human activities take place, rural is often used to refer to the area of any country with extensive land uses such as agriculture and forestry, and settlements with non-urban environment (Bryant, et al, 1982). In contemporary period, occupation, population and infrastructure are commonly used criteria to determine whether an area is urban or rural.
Other demographic characteristics such as community size, density, and heterogeneity are casually related to occupational differences. In view of all these characteristics, a rural settlement is a settlement with less than 20,000 inhabitants and whose population are largely homogeneous and predominantly engaged in primary production (Olujimi, 1988). Rural settlements generally lack adequate infrastructural facilities; thus making living in the community very miserable. In most developing countries, Mabogunje (1980) has noted the change in traditional rural structures from what they used to be before the advent of colonialists.
Okafor and Onakerhaoraye (1986) have also decried the numerous impacts of the consequences of modernisation, urbanisation, and technological changes on the rural environment that have been left largely to chance. Not until recently, systematic physical planning in the rural area to deal with potential negative consequences of change has never been an issue worthy of serious consideration. Consequently, the rural population of many countries (from which Nigeria cannot be exempted) have been suffering different kinds of deprivation (Olujimi, 2005a). The quality of services for many rural people is considerably poor. There is exhaustion and over–exploitation of the rural natural resources and pollution of the rural environment is evident in many ramifications. Dealing with these rural problems requires systematic physical planning.
3.2 URBAN CONCEPT
Urban settlement is defined as large, compact, densely built-up area where open spaces are often in short supply except at the periphery (Mabogunje, 2005). Mabogunje (2005) further stressed the characteristics of an urban settlement as a settlement where population tend to be heterogeneous and socially diversified, such that kinship relationship is of minimal importance; goods and services are largely commoditised such that everything tends to have a price tag to it, and interaction and interpersonal relations are virtually contractual in nature with the maintenance of law and order being rather formal and impersonal.
Urban centres are associated with the diversity of functions where all types of occupations, industries and services are represented. Urban centres are classified into types from small towns, big towns, cities, metropolitan cities, to mega-cities. This classification reflects the population. A small town has a population of 20,000 while the mega-city parades population in millions.
Plate 1: A Dirty and Poor Sanitary Environment in a Typical Nigerian city
The diversification in occupation, functions and population make urban centres to serve as engine of economic development and to act as population magnet to surrounding rural dwellers (Egunjobi, 1999, Olujimi, 2005b) On the other hand, the inadequate environmental management attached to the diverse and complex activities within the urban centres is resulting into environmental problems that are threatening the dwellers (Filani, 1988; Olujimi, 2009a, 2009b). These include the haphazard locations of industries and emissions of hydrocarbon and poisonous gases that are depleting the ozone layer as well as causing climate change and global warming. Slum areas in towns and cities are characterised by inadequate housing, non-provision of functional infrastructural facilities such as portable water, electricity and motorable roads (Olujimi,2007a) The levels of these problems in Nigeria prompted Agbola (2005) to describe Nigerian cities and towns as reputed to be the dirtiest (see plate 1), most unsanitary, least aesthetically pleasing and dangerously unsafe for living which are characterized by non-functioning infrastructure facilities, most poorly governed and intensively dotted with illegal structures. The poor state of these urban infrastructure facilities is resulting into high rate of unemployment, increased crime rate and unimaginable poverty among the greater majority of the urban dwellers (Olanrewaju, 2004). Nigeria currently has more than 500 urban centres including mega-cities and parades high level of planlessness among African countries, which calls for physical planning attention.
3.3 Concept of Physical Planning:
Planning is a word of many meanings. To some, it means blueprint for the future; to others, it means government’s responsibility to take whatever action necessary to ensure that the economic system operates efficiently. To a house-wife, planning may be conceived as means of managing her feeding budget within the allowance allocated to her by the husband and to a class teacher, planning relates to the preparation in advance of his/her lecture. One common meaning of planning is that it is concerned with deliberately achieving some objectives (which may be individual or corporate) and it proceeds by evolving strategies and actions arranged in a prioritised order or sequence.
In view of these observations, planning generally involves thinking ahead and making advance arrangements to achieve particular objectives. Planning embraces the simple process of determining appropriate future action through a sequence of CHOICES. There is no form one can talk of planning without bringing out the issue of choice. In the same vein, Oyesiku (2002) defines planning as the art and science of making choices among options in the present and future development and securing their implications subject to allocation of necessary resources.
Planning then becomes an idea that transcends the entire human endeavour. It can be applied to virtually all human activities, right from the level of individual, the family or the neighbourhood’ to that of the town, district or the society. The application of the term ‘’planning’’ to the management of our environment is often times traditionally referred to as ‘Town Planning’. Town planning is the art and science of ordering the use of land and the character and siting of buildings and communication routes so as to secure maximum practicable degree of economy, convenience and beauty (Keebles, 1969).
In the same vein, town planning is concerned with the provision of the right site at the right time in the right place for the right people (i.e. users). From all indications, the objective of town planning essentially is to create a pleasant and healthy environment for man. Since the focus of town planning is the totality of our environment, often times, town planning is erroneously equated to addressing planning problems relating to towns and cities alone rather than the totality of the environment (Olujimi and Basorun, 2002). This brings into focus the use of all embracing terminology of ‘’physical planning’’.
Physical Planning has been variously defined. Murdricks (1973) described physical planning as dealing with spatial arrangements of objects. This definition, though rather broad, leaves social implications of the arrangement unaddressed. Adeniyi (1984) defined physical planning as the design, growth and management of the physical environment in accordance with predetermined and agreed upon policies, where balanced social and economic objectives may be achieved. Even when Adeniyi’s definition has addressed the social implications of the arrangement, it has not stressed one important component of the physical environment. This is land use. Land use is the spatial reflection of human activity on land; and whose efficient arrangement and harmonious coordination are basic to physical planning.
Incorporating land use into the definition of physical planning, Oyesiku (2002) defined physical planning as an orderly spatial arrangement of the various land uses such as residential, industrial, commercial, recreation and open spaces, transportation, public infrastructure and other ancillary human activities. It is concerned with functional relationship among the various land uses with a view to ensuring that services are available and accessible to all conveniently and efficiently.
The objective of physical planning is to create or provide a pleasant healthy physical environment for living, working, recreation and movement. In this regard, physical planning covers all spheres of human endeavour and all aspects of natural or man-made resources and yet performs a co-ordinating role to ensure harmony in the development of the built environment (Olujimi, 1993). Hence, physical planning is an essential (social) service that every responsible government should provide for its people.
The focus of physical planning is very broad. It varies from the smallest scale, where focus of attention is on the preparation of a plan for a single project such as a small factory, a University campus, or a market, to the broadest scale such as a National Physical Development Plan prepared for a country (FGN, 2009). Indeed, Ilesanmi (2002) prepared a supra-national regional development plan for ECOWAS member states involving diverse infrastructure across different nations. Physical Planning has been given various names, in an attempt to reflect the peculiarities at the various scales of its application; hence the terms ‘Town and Country Planning, ‘Urban and Regional Planning’, ‘Land Use Planning, and Environmental Planning.
4.0 MIGRATION AND URBANISATION TREND IN NIGERIA
Mr. Vice-Chancellor sir, permit me to run through the political evolution of Nigeria before discussing migration and the urbanisation trend in the country since it provides a platform to distil the level of development within and among regions and movement of people from rural to urban settlements.
4.1 Political Evolution of Nigeria:
The history of various ethnic groups which resided in kingdoms and emirates in the geographical entity which was later known as Nigeria in 1914 pre-dates the advent of colonization. British colonial presence was first established in the coastal area around Lagos which was declared a crown colony in 1861. The trading activities of the Royal Niger Company facilitated the spread of British influence and resulted in the segmentation of the territory by a natural divide formed by the River Niger and River Benue into Northern and Southern protectorates.
The two protectorates were under separate governments until they were amalgamated in 1914 to form a single political entity named NIGERIA. In 1946, the country was politically partitioned into three semi-autonomous administrative regions – North, East, and West. By 1960, Nigeria secured its independence from British rule and became a federation of three regions under a parliamentary system of government: On October 1st 1963, the Western region was further partitioned into two with the creation of Mid-Western region, and Nigeria became a Republic. At different times, the country has passed through series of military interventions that culminated into 30 years of military rule. This scenario has substantially influenced the change in the pattern of population movement and growth of towns and cities in Nigeria.
Migration is the process of the relocation of people within space that involves their permanent or temporary change of residence (Mafukidze, 2006). In the migration process, two basic locations are involved. First, is the location from which the migrant takes-off the movement (origin), while the second is the location where the migrant terminates the movement (destination). These two locations are used in the classification of migration into types. These are rural-urban migration, rural-rural migration, urban-urban migration, and urban-rural migration. When international borders are crossed, such migration is referred to as international migration; and when it is restricted within the confinement of a given border, it is known as internal migration.
Rural-urban migration is the movement of people from the countryside to the city or town. Rural – urban migration essentially causes two main things to happen. These are (1) urban growth thereby making towns and cities to expand covering a greater area of land; (2) urbanisation – leading to increasing proportion of people of diverse cultures living in towns and cities. Apparently worried by the effects of rural-urban migration on the increasing growth of towns and cities and the depopulation of rural settlement in Nigeria, Fasakin (2006) called for the use of physical planning in the redistribution of population by reducing rural-urban migration.
Rural-rural migration is the movement of rural dwellers from their rural settlements to another group of rural settlements or rural areas essentially to carry out farming activities. The main reason for such movement might be shortage of farmland in their locality due to pressure on the available land or poor soil conditions (Olujimi, 200a). Regular communal conflicts between few host communities and the migrant tenant settlers have led to loss of lives and properties. Urban-urban migration involves movement of migrants from one urban centre to another urban centre. Civil servants are mostly involved in this type of migration process when they are on transfer, during which they move with the members of their families to the locations of their new posting (e.g. Ibadan to Lagos). Urban-rural migration involves the movement of migrants from urban centres back to their villages. This concerns mostly retirees and on few occasions newly graduated apprentices who might want to establish their trade in their villages.
The decision to migrate involves contextual factors, such as ‘’push factors’’ which force migrants out of rural areas (i.e. origin), and ‘’pull factors’’ which attract migrants to urban areas (i.e. their destination). The factors typically reflect the relative strength of the local economies (such as the availability and remuneration of jobs) the existence of local amenities, the cost and availability of public goods or even institutional factors. In addition to these general factors, Lall, et al (2006), have presented theoretical frameworks in which internal migration has been modelled into three types. The first type covers the dual economy models which emerged in the 1950s and 1960s; the second type covers the Harris – Todaro models developed in the 1970s and 1980s; and the third type covers the more elaborate microeconomic models. It may not be necessary to bore the audience with the details of these models. Migration is a component of population change and of urban growth. The link between migration and urbanisation goes far beyond the supply of additional population to urban centres. Migration and urbanisation are both a consequence of the modernisation of the economy and society, as well as the agents that further the pace of modernisation (Makinwa-Adebusoye, 1997)
4.3 Urbanisation Trend in Nigeria
(i) Pre-colonial Period:
Urbanisation is the process by which urban population increases in absolute number and in proportion to rural population either through the increase in population of existing cities or through the growth of new ones. Nigeria is one of the few countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, which had many large pre-industrial cities before the colonial period. During the period, the population of the traditional towns grew very slowly through natural increase of births over deaths. Incessant inter-tribal wars led to sudden and serious decline in the population of many settlements while some were completely destroyed by the enemy.
In the South-Western part, there were few other towns and cities such as Ibadan, Benin, Ile-Ife, Oyo and Ilesha, whose populations were swollen by the influx of refugees fleeing from war affected areas. As far back as 1857, Hinder, a missionary estimated the population of Ibadan at 100,000; Abeokuta 60,000; Ogbomosho 50,000, and Ilorin 70,000 (Mabogunje, 1968). In the Hausa-Fulani Empire of the North, there were large cities such as Kano, Zaria, and Sokoto which served as administrative, trade and religious centres of the Emirate. These towns became more popular as a result of their locations along the trans-Saharan trade routes. The allocation of land to individuals and groups within and outside the city walls for different uses and the supervision of the physical development of the allocated land which were strictly within the portfolio of the Obas ably assisted by their Quarter-Chiefs in the West; the Emirs in the North, and Obis in the East.
Plate 2: The Penetration of the European Traders into the Hinterland was facilitated by Natives who were used to carry the Traders on Head-portage by Hammock through footpaths during the Colonial Period
(ii) Colonial Period
The trading activities of the European traders penetrated more into the hinterland during the colonial period. This led to the establishment of more trading centres at places like Abeokuta, Iseyin and Oshogbo. The Obas and village-heads in settlements along the routes passed by the European traders arranged for the carrying of the European Traders from one settlement to the others (see Plate 2); the service for which the Obas would be given probably a mere glass cup or a small bottle of wine in return (Dike, 1960).
In addition, the administrative structure created by the colonial governments between 1900 and 1910 drastically changed the pattern of distribution of towns in Nigeria. Headquarters of administrative units were established in existing traditional towns while new towns were created to carry out the ‘central place functions’ of administration trade and culture in areas where there were scattered villages. The established government station was made up of government offices, the houses of the Colonial Officers, European traders, and Missionaries built at locations outside the walls of the ancient town.
The 1911 population census put the country’s population figure at 16 million which indicated an annual growth rate of 1.5 percent. In the 1911 population census, the classification figure for an urban centre was 5,000 people and 29 urban centres were identified. The 1931 population census put the figure for Nigeria at 20.05 million with an annual growth rate of 0.7 percent and 27 urban centres. Mining and transport development particularly the introduction of rail transport led to the creation of another category of new towns such as Enugu to house coal miners while Jos and Bukuru were established to serve the tin mining industry on the Jos Plateau. These factors produced significant increase in the population of the country as reflected in the 1952/53 population census that put the figure for the country at 30.4 million out of which 3.2 million were living in 56 urban centres. The growth rate was 1.9 percent. The urban population constituted 10.6 percent of the entire population of the country. There was a noticeable increase in the population of urban centres which was more than doubled the number recorded in 1931. The allocation of land for different uses in the native parts of the towns and cities was essentially the responsibility of the Obas and the quarter-chiefs while the uses and allocation of land outside the town and city walls was still the responsibility of the Obas and quarter-chiefs but strictly guided by the clerks working under the colonial administrators (Olujimi, 1993, 2003b). The clerks were meant to enforce the ordinance put in place to protect and maintain the environmental quality of the European quarters built in the government reservation areas.
(iii) Post-Colonial Urbanisation:
The 1960 political independence in Nigeria and the development activities of the political leaders in the three (3) regions created an improved welfare and living conditions for the people. This led to significant increase in the population. The result of 1963 population census shows that the population of the country had increased to 55.67 million out of which 10.6 million people were living in urban centres. This constituted 19.1 percent of the entire population. Even when the classification figure for urban centre was increased from 5,000 to 20,000 during the 1963 census, Nigeria had 183 urban centres; a figure that was more than triple the number of urban centres recorded during 1952/53 census (see Table 1).
Table 1: Population Growth and Urbanization in Nigeria 1911 – 2010
Year Total Annual No. Of Urban Total Urban %
Population Growth Centres Population Urban
(‘000) Rate (20,000+) (000)
1911 16,054 -
1921 18,720 1.5 % 29 1,345 7.2
1931 0,056 0.7 % 27 1,431 7.2
1952/53 30,403 1.9 % 56 3,237 10.6
1963 55,760 5.7 % 183 10.627 19.1
1991 88,510 4.5 % 359 31,598 35.7
2001 125,000 3% 450 55,125 44.1
2006 140,432 NA NA NA NA
2010 158.320 NA NA NA NA
Sources: (1) Makinwa-Adebusoye (1997)
(2) Olujimi and Ayeni (2006)
(3) National Population Commission (2007)
(4) Population Reference Bureau (2010).
Note: N.A. =Not Available
The 27-month ravaging effects of the civil war on the population and economy of the country notwithstanding, the 1970s oil boom provided a scour that supported the undertaking of developmental projects in different parts of the country. This has continuously accounted for the rapid rate of urbanisation in Nigeria. The recklessness of the utilisation of foreign earnings from the oil boom was exhibited in every sector of Nigerian economy even to the extent that a one-time Nigerian Head of State was alleged of boasting that ‘’money was not the problem of Nigeria government but how to spend it’’.
As a fall-out of the availability of fund earned from the oil boom; two other important factors contributed significantly to the growth and development of cities in Nigeria during the period. These are continuous geopolitical restructuring through the creation of states and local government councils in 1976, 1987, 1991 and 1996; and the industrialisation process between 1960 and 1975, which was based on import substitution strategies and consumer market for imported goods and services (Olujimi 2000a; Oyesiku, 2002).
The development projects in towns and cities attracted rural dwellers and made them abandoned farming activities in the rural areas for towns and cities to take up white collar jobs; which they were not trained for. By 1991 population census, the population of Nigeria was put at 88 million with 359 urban centres; compared with 56 in 1952/53, and 183 in 1963, and 450 in 2000 while the urban population for 1991 was 31.598 million that constitutes 35.7 percent, and the number of cities with population of a million or more by 2001 was 18 (FMHUD, 2006). The summation of the breakdown of the Nation and State provisional population totals of 2006 census indicated that Nigeria is 140, 431, 790 (i.e. 140.43 million) (NPC, 2007). There is no gainsaying in the fact that the 2006 provisional population census figure confirms that Nigeria has continuously witnessed pronounced growth rate of urban population but 5 years after the conduct of the census exercise, the population figure for each of the settlements are yet to be released; a very vital information required for physical planning proposal.
The conclusion that can be drawn from the internal migration issues and the trend of urbanisation in Nigeria are that ( i ) in spite of the on-going rural-urban migration in Nigeria, about 60 per cent of the Nigerian population are still living in the rural area; (2) the rate of urban growth in Nigeria remains very high between 5 – 8 percent per annum; (3) noticeable wide exists between the rural areas and the urban areas that promotes rural depopulation; (4) there has been a very high poverty incidence both at the rural and urban areas in the country, and (5) while the rural settlements lack rural infrastructure that can make life worthy of living; the infrastructure in the urban area are largely in the state of disrepair characterised by non-functional and insanitary conditions. These situations constitute themselves to physical planning dilemma at large.
5.0 THE NIGERIAN PHYSICAL PLANNING EXPERIENCE
Mr. Vice-Chancellor sir, I consider it necessary at this stage to intimate the audience with the Nigerian physical planning experience right from the evolution of physical planning in the territory now called Nigeria to-date. This is to illuminate their minds towards appreciating the Nigerian physical planning dilemma.
5.1 Evolution of Physical Planning in Nigeria:
(a) Traditional Settlement Planning: (Pre-colonial Town Planning Experience)
The management of man’s environment dates back to the evolution of the first man on Earth, but the administration of modern or formal physical planning started at various periods. In the entire territory that is now known as Nigeria, spatial planning had been part of local indigenous administration before the colonial administration, hitherto referred to as traditional settlement planning (Modupe and Olujimi, 1989). Pre-1850s, many indigenous settlements had a form of arrangement of land uses in their domain that are structured according to the local customs and practices; the traditional land tenure system; the agrarian nature of the economy and the existing mode of transportation.
Communal land is vested in the natural rulers or community heads like Obis, Obongs, Obas or Emirs, while family land is vested in family heads whose legal status was that of a trust – beneficiary. They allocated, re-allocated, and supervised the uses of land by their subjects. In effect, therefore, traditional (Nigerian) Settlements were established around palaces of traditional rulers which promoted efficient communal interactions and reduced cost of transportation. The development and control of the total environment was the joint administrative responsibility of the entire community.
However, some of these traditional settlements were established in locations that considered largely the factors of defence, religion or trade. Unfavourable topography has also been settled mainly as strategic defence sites in times of external attack. Examples of such sites are Okene, Abeokuta and Idanre. It is important to note that some of these settlements still retain their identity till-date by exhibiting uniform land use patterns, which was the reflection of the customary laws in their localities (NITP, 1993).
(b) Colonial Town Planning Experience
Traditional settlement planning gradually gave way to colonial planning approaches with the annexation of Lagos as British Colony under the Treaty of Cession in 1861. It started in 1863 with the enactment of the Town Improvement Ordinance by the colonial government. The 1863 Ordinance was meant to control development and urban sanitation in Lagos, the then Federal Capital of Nigeria. The Ordinance was enforced by the Lagos City Council’s Department of Health. In order to ensure the effectiveness in the control of sanitation in the European quarter, Lord Lugard made the Cantonment Proclamation of 1904. This provided the avenue to administer planning standards for the various segments of the city giving more physical planning attention and infrastructural provision to the Government Reservation Areas (GRAs). After five decades, the enforcement of the 1863 Ordinance was extended to cover the entire country, and renamed with some modifications as the ‘Township Ordinance’ (Ordinance 29 of 1917). The main purpose of this ordinance was to establish the broad principle of municipal responsibility, graduated according to the importance of the community and the measure of its ability to accept and discharge satisfactorily independent powers (Lugard, 1919).
As a departure from the Town Improvement Ordinance, the 1917 Township Ordinance separated matters directly concerned with health and sanitation from those related to development control, construction of building, streets, etc., and placed the former within the responsibility of the medical and sanitary department operating under the Public Health Ordinance. The operation of the township Ordinance was made the responsibility of the Administrative and Public Works Department (PWD). The Township Ordinance among other provisions emphasised the guidelines for the physical layout of urban areas, particularly the Government Reservation Areas (GRAs), which were specifically meant to harbour the colonial masters and very few well-placed Nigerian civil servants. However, the ordinance did not provide for the re-planning of existing traditional settlements.
In 1925, there was an outbreak of bubonic plague in Lagos. As a means of ensuring a planned environment that could continuously provide safe and healthy living conditions and possible checks on future outbreaks of the plague, the Lagos Town Planning Ordinance was enacted (Federal Government of Nigeria, 1928). This ordinance made provision for the establishment of the Lagos Executive Development Board (LEDB), which was mainly concerned with minimal slum clearance on Lagos Island and the preparation of layout schemes at Surulere, Ikoyi and Apapa in Lagos.
It was observed by the colonial government, in the Ten-Year Development and Welfare Plan for Nigeria 1946-1956 (Federal Government of Nigeria, 1946a), that there was no town in Nigeria that was not in serious need of re-planning and the proper laying-out of further extensions. This led to the enactment of the Town and Country Planning Ordinance (No. 4) (Federal Government of Nigeria, 1946b), which formed Chapter 155 of Nigerian Laws and which was fashioned after the United Kingdom (UK) Town and Country Planning Act 1932 (Adeniyi, 1984). The ordinance provided the legislative basis for village re-planning, and the improvement and development of various parts of Nigeria by means of planning schemes to be prepared and executed by designated planning authorities.
In the Nigerian Ten-Year Development and Welfare Plan, allocation was made for town planning and village reconstruction schemes. None of the 17 Town Planning Authorities (TPAs) established in the then Western Region between 1947 and 1954 was in the Ondo Province (Modupe and Olujimi, 1989). Therefore, in that province, all activities related to physical planning, such as approval of building plans, were carried out by the village-heads or chiefs in collaboration with sanitary inspectors attached to the local government councils.
Based on the 1946 Nigerian Town and Country Planning Ordinance, the regional governments enacted their planning laws. First to do that was the Western Regional Government which enacted its Town and Country Planning Law (Western Nigerian Government, 1956), which formed Chapter 123 of the Laws of Western Nigeria, followed by the Eastern Regional Government in 1958 that formed chapter 155 of the Laws of Eastern Nigeria and in the North which formed Chapter 130 of the Northern Nigeria (NITP, 1993). Enforcement of this law was the responsibility of the Town Planning Division of the Ministry of Lands and Housing. Among other provisions, the law established Town Planning Authorities (TPAs), which were to control and guide the orderly development of the settlements within their jurisdiction by approving proposals for physical development and through the preparation of development schemes and land use plans.
The TPAs were independent of the local government council administration. Each TPA was controlled by a board, whose members were appointed by the Regional Government. The Board members of the TPAs were representatives of government agencies such as the Electricity Board, the Water Corporation, the Regional Ministry of Works and Housing, the Ministry of Finance and representatives of the community in which the TPA was located. In contrast to what obtains in the U.K, where the boards of local planning authorities met often to consider every plan for physical development submitted for approval, the boards of the TPAs delegated the approval duties to the officer in charge of the TPAs.
By virtue of the functions expected of the TPAs, they operated at a level at which planning activities touch the people directly. Regrettably, none of the nine TPAs in Ondo Province was headed by a qualified town planner. Those officers in charge were technical assistants, trained in the Town Planning Training School at the Ministry of Lands and Housing, Ibadan, and the then Technical College in Ibadan. The level of training was not adequate to provide the background knowledge required for meaningful administration of any TPA (Olujimi, 1999). This poor staffing affected the performances of the TPAs by restricting their activities to the towns in which they were located.
(c) Post Independence Town Planning Experience.
(i) 1960-1966 (During the First Republic)
At independence, the Nigerian government prepared the First National Development Plan (1962-1968). The designers of the plan intended to accelerate the rate of economic growth and raise the standard of living of the population, and give the country an increasing measure of control over her destiny during the plan period. The plan aimed at achieving an annual investment of 15 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and a minimum annual growth rate of 4 percent for the economy. The government expenditure placed emphasis an agriculture, industrial development and technical training. Although physical planning was considered in the plan but it did not feature prominently. In terms of proposed capital expenditure, a total of £42 million (N84 million) was allocated for town planning in the 1962-1968 plan for the whole country. Actual disbursement was, however, £19.6 million (N39.2 million) or about 47 percent of the allocation (Federal Ministry of Information, 1970).
Even when the Federal Government identified the need for housing, urban renewal and social development programmes that could alleviate the problems of the cities in general and of Federal and Regional capitals of Lagos, Ibadan, Kaduna and Enugu in particular; the Federal government only focused its attention mainly on the development of Lagos Metropolitan Area. The LEDB carried out renewal projects in Lagos, while the Regional Government established housing estates in their regional capitals. The few surviving Town Planning Authorities were headed by unqualified personnel who essentially focused their attention on few towns where they were only concerned with granting of building permits.
(ii) Under the Military Administration (1966-1979):
Before the expiration of the First National Development (1962 – 1968), Nigeria witnessed traumatic ethno-political instability that led to military intervention in governance in the country on January 15th 1966. The administration during the period fragmented the existing four (4) political regions (i.e. including Mid-western Region) into 12 states and each of the state capitals emerged and served as growth poles. This set in motion accelerated urbanisation process with its attendant problems. The 27-month civil war further worsened the urbanisation problems. The problems among others included increasing rate of unemployment (especially in cities), economic inequalities were pronounced between urban and rural areas that heightened rate of poverty, increase in crime rate and most importantly deterioration of physical infrastructure in urban areas.
Part of the major concern of the Second National Development Plan was essentially to reconstruct the war damaged areas, reconcile back into the main stream the disintegrated Nigeria and rehabilitate the war affected group. In the plan therefore, many of the items grouped together under Town and Country Planning were not Physical Planning ’per se’ but were parts of the manifestations or consequences of Physical Planning. The planning efforts during the plan period were described as the best by Onibokun (1985) probably when compared with the past efforts at the end of the plan period (i.e. 1974).
Nonetheless, it could be described as the beginning of a period when both the federal and state governments began to develop an awareness of the need to understand and take action to improve the quality of our physical environment. During the plan period, the federal government commissioned a study on the development problems and future needs of 20 major urban centres in Nigeria. This included the Federal Capital Lagos and all the then State Capitals. The state governments one after the other, embarked on the preparation of master plan for their major towns and cities. However, few of the completed master plans are for Port-Harcourt, Benin, and Calabar.
The Third National Development Plan (1975-1980) identified and captured correctly the Nigerian settlements’ problems among others as regional imbalance, overcrowding of few major cities, rural depopulation and urban congestion, low quality of life in urban settlements, infrastructural inadequacies, and ineffective institutional arrangements for urban problems management. One of the major objectives of the plan is to intensify physical planning efforts in the country as a whole and especially as regards our major urban centres which have become the main centres of population concentration and of modern industry, commerce and public administration (FGN, 1975). A review of the Third National Development Plan in the Fourth National Development plan showed that the actual expenditure during the plan period under Town and Country Planning was N184million while all the state expended N147 million on projects in the sector (Onibokun, 1985).
During the plan period, the Federal Housing Authority was established to enhance public service delivery of housing ownership while the former Nigerian Building Society (NBS) was transformed to Federal Mortgage Bank of Nigeria as part of the policy on direct housing construction programme. The 11 River Basin Development Authorities were established across the country, with hope of providing regional implications that may be similar to USA Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) approach. Disappointingly, they stood alone as agricultural and water development strategy.
However, the greatest achievement under urban and regional planning was the institutionalization of the concept of new town that led to the emergence of Abuja, Onne, Lagos Satellite Town and FESTAC Town. This led to the enactment of the Federal Capital Territory Decree No. 6 of 1976, under which the Federal Capital Development Authority (FCDA) was established as the Agency for the design, construction and administration of the territory.
The Land Use Decree of 1978 was also enacted and its implementation created some problems for physical planning. The problems among others include the inability of individuals to come forward to process layout for planning approval which led to uncoordinated layouts. Before the expiration of the Third National Development Plan, the military administration under the leadership of General Olusegun Obasanjo handed over power to the civilian administration in Nigeria in 1979, which was regarded as the second coming of the civilians in power popularly referred to as ‘’the Second Republic’’.
(iii) Urban and Regional Planning in the Second Republic (1979 – 1983):
As the military government was handing over power to civilian administration, the preparation of the Fourth National Development Plan (1981-1985) was already in the pipeline and the plan shared similarity with the Third NDP. However, the plan specified clearly the objective of Urban and Regional Planning by defining the role of physical planning as a tool for achieving national development objectives as well as putting forward some policy measures that were of planning interest (Adebayo, 1999). The plan had a projected capital expenditure of about N82 billion, and it was the first plan in which the local government councils participated in their own right, following their constitutional provision as a distinct level of government with specific responsibilities. A total of N2.3billion was allocated by all the state governments for the implementation of the projects in their sector. Out of this amount, Lagos State had the biggest allocation of N540.1 million while Ogun State had the lowest allocation of N25.9 million and Ondo State had a moderate allocation of N56.72 million and the FCDA was given a priority with an allocation of N2.5 billion ( FGN, 1981). It was highly frustrating to note that less than 10 percent of these allocations were actually disbursed to planning projects.
During the period, the Federal government undertook construction of low cost housing projects in all the local government council headquarters, in the federation popularly known as ‘’Shagari Housing Project’’. However, with all the good intentions of the scheme, the implementation was confronted with strong political obstacles in some states by making land available for the scheme in locations where the realities of the scheme could not be achieved. In addition, the ruling party which is the proponent of the scheme corruptly used the scheme to enrich political stalwarts in the party. Another notable scheme that was of interest to physical planning during the period is the establishment of Infrastructure Development Fund (IDF) project in 1985 for the purpose of financing urban development projects. It is interesting to stress that some states carried out planning activities in compliance with the provisions of their inherited planning laws from their parent regions. State Housing Corporations and Town Planning Authorities came alive. Many states prepared master plans for their state capitals and few other towns and cities.
However, like the previous plans, the Fourth National Development Plan suffered lack of commitment to its detailed implementation and its implementation did little to develop and promote regional development programmes as notable challenges persisted. These included environmental decay, inadequate and poor quality of housing, unemployment and under-employment, poor basic infrastructure, ineffective legal and institutional framework for planning, and inadequate human capital base for urban planning across the country (Oyesiku, 2010).
(iv) Urban and Regional Planning During the Return of the Military to Power (1984-1999):
The second Republic barely lasted for a term in office when Nigeria witnessed another military intervention that lasted for a period of 16 years. At the expiration of the Fourth National Development Plan, the military administration discontinued the act of preparing national development plan and introduced rolling and perspective plans. The annual budgets on yearly basis made mandatory allocations to different sectors of the economy and performance evaluation of the different sectors were reviewed on succeeding years. A cursory look at the review of the annual budgets under the military administration over the years succinctly pointed to the fact that it was mere fiscal planning without necessarily considering the interactive effects of the different sectors on land and the totality of Man-environment, which physical planning is designed to achieve.
Nonetheless, the period played host to major landmark events that were of relevance to physical planning and development. The creation of additional states and local government councils increased the total number of states in August 1991 to 30 and subsequently in 1992 to 36 and the local government councils to 774; a structure which is still in place to-date. The state capitals served as impetus of growth poles while the local government council headquarters were growth points that are statutorily expected to propel development at the grassroots. Disappointingly, few of these local government council headquarters were sited in settlements that could not boast of 10 building structures where the developmental spread effects could be propelled; rather they are routine meeting points of councillors to share among themselves the federal allocation that accrued to the councils.
Mr. Vice-Chancellor sir, permit me to digress a little to examine the role of the Nigerian Institute of Town Planners (NITP) during the period; since its activities are bound to influence physical planning. The Institute was established in 1966 with a view to promote among others the advancement of Town and Country Planning in Nigeria through education, training, research and practice (NITP, 1993). The Institute has a Constitution and Code of Professional Conduct and Practice for its members. Many of the acclaimed practising Town Planners never carried the NITP membership registration, and they strongly believed that the NITP was a ‘’toothless bulldog’’ which could never bite. Not until 1988, when the military government promulgated the Town Planners Registration Council (TOPREC) Decree No.3 (FGN, 1992). The decree among others made statutory provision for the establishment of the Council that designs the criteria for registration of Town Planners, controls the standard of planning education, and the practice of town planning.
However, TOPREC has no record of any celebrated case of professional misconduct levelled against any erring member; but the consciousness of the disciplinary power of the council among members became very high. By 2010, TOPREC had registered about 2,333 Town Planners, and 30 planning firms (TOPREC, 2011). The questions we need to ask now are; will the 2,333 registered Town Planners be sufficient to offer planning services required by the 158 million Nigerian population? Have the activities of TOPREC, and the enforcement of Decree No.3 reduced quackery in physical planning practice? It is an open truth that not all the registered Town Planners are gainfully engaged in physical planning practice either in the public or private sector (i.e. a situation where there are high numbers of unemployed town planners in a country where the numbers of available town planners are not sufficient to serve the needs of the country). This is part of the physical planning dilemma that would be addressed in the latter part of this lecture.
The Town and Country Planning Act of 1946 was reviewed in 1992 under the military administration by the promulgation of the Nigerian Urban and Regional Planning Decree No.88 (FGN, 1992). The law provides for types and levels of physical development plan, levels and functions of administrative bodies for the execution of physical planning development activities, and the procedure for the preparation of physical development plans by the various bodies according to the levels of government in the country. The improvement in the 1992 planning law allows state governments to domesticate the law at the state and local government levels and it makes the state and local governments key players in land use planning and also prepared the platform for purposeful planning in Nigeria. A review of the activities of local government in the management of urban centres in Nigeria carried out by Olujimi (2000b) has rated the performance as falling below expectation.
(v) Urban and Regional Planning in the Third Republic (1999-to- Date) :.
By the initial arrangement of the military administration under the leadership of Gen. Ibrahim Babangida, the Third Republic was originally scheduled to take-off by gradual disengagement of the military from power in 1992. In readiness to usher in the new administration, every Professional Association planned towards the take-off of the third Republic. The Nigerian Institute of Town Planners devoted the theme of its 1991 Annual Conference to ‘’Physical Planning in the Third Republic in Nigeria’’ (Olujimi, 1991a). The take-off of the Third Republic in 1992 was derailed by the annulment of the popular June 12 presidential election of 1992 and subsequent intervention of General Sanni Abacha in power. The third Republic did not take-off until May 29th, 1999.
Few months into the Third Republic, the millennium magic year, ‘year 2000’ was reached. Like other countries, the target set by Nigeria in planning related sectors was evaluated. These are ‘Housing for All by the year 2000’’, ’Health for All by the year 2000’’, Education for All by the year 2000’’ etc. There were clear indications that Nigeria could not boast of achieving her target in any of the sectors. Nigerian government joined other world leaders in addressing the problems of poverty and other related problems by keying into the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) (Olujimi et al, 2008). Other plans that were put in place by the civilian administration were the vision 2010, and later vision 20:20.20.
Mr. Vice-Chancellor sir, some members of the audience may begin to wonder the relevance of these plans and programmes to urban and regional planning. Since these plans are implemented through (designed) programmes that would transform the socio-economic outlook of Nigeria and reposition Nigeria among other nations of the World, it would definitely have implications for the physical development of our environment (i.e. cities, towns, villages, e.t.c) in Nigeria. A cursory look at the Ondo State component of the National Vision 20:20.20, Plan shows that urban development, housing and environment were captured under the strategic services while programmes listed to achieve these among others are the programmed development of cities; as well as improved institution and policy framework for their management (ODSG, 2009).
However, for the spatial coordination of the expected benefits derivable from the implementation of vision 20:20.20, the administration had introduced the preparation of National Physical Development Plan (NPDP) which is essentially the domain of Physical Planners. The National Physical Development Plan is an action plan programmed to provide an overall strategic planning framework to guide physical development and capital infrastructure investment decisions in the country over a specific period of 20 years (Olamiju and Olujimi, 2011). The NPDP is expected to integrate economic, social and physical sectors for equitable, harmonious, efficient and balanced sustainable development of Nigeria by year 2020 (FMWHUD, 2010).
In view of the promulgation of 1992 Nigeria Urban and Regional Planning Law in March 1999 by the military administration, some of the state governments were yet to domesticate the law. This is an indication that the states were still operating based on the ‘’outdated planning law’’ inherited from their parent regions, which are not in tune with current planning challenges in their states. There are other group of states where the planning law had been domesticated but major provisions of the law had not been implemented. For instance, Ondo State Government domesticated the 1992 planning law by the enactment of the Ondo State Urban and Regional Planning Board and Local Planning Authorities Edict No.2 of 1999 which was signed into law on 19th May, 1999 (ODSG, 1999). Studies have revealed that some of the major provisions of the Edict have not been implemented 13 years after its enactment (Olujimi 1997; Olujimi and Fashuyi, 2004). It is not that the law is practically un-implementable but the poor interest developed in physical planning by the power that be.
In the case of Ekiti state, it was in July 2011 that the Executive Governor of Ekiti state signed the Urban and Regional planning Bill into law. This might not be unconnected with the need to provide a legal backing for the on-going massive urban renewal projects embarked upon by the state government which is responsible for the widening of roads and demolition of some buildings along the roads in Ado-Ekiti, the state capital. However, Lagos state is an exemption. It domesticated its planning law as far back as 1994 and on many occasions had reviewed the planning law to meet up with the physical planning challenges of the state.
The situation in Oyo state presents an interesting picture of physical planning administration. The 1992 Planning law was domesticated in the state in 2001, and the Planning Board and Town Planning Authorities (TPAs) were inaugurated in 2008 at the state and local government levels respectively. First-Timer visitors to Ibadan city would find it difficult to believe that there is a planning law put in place and there were Town Planners were employed to enforce planning regulations and standards; yet the immediate past governor of the state saw the need to use planning apparatus with all his zeal to set on the demolition of the office of the opposing faction of the Road Transport Workers Union in Ibadan in 2011. This is the extent to which the political class could wrongly intimidate and victimise their subjects under the pretext of physical planning administration.
Mr. Vice-Chancellor sir, and distinguished audience, if the physical planning operating laws in different states of Nigeria are in this situation; one may not find it too difficult to give reasons why most Nigerian towns and cities exhibit the highest order of planlessness. They are characterised by sporadic growth of slum, increase rate of illegal structures development, chaotic traffic congestion, and poor sanitary conditions among others.
Source: Oyesiku (2010) P 96
Plate 3: One of the Areas in the Central District of Abuja that projects the image of Abuja as a ‘Pride of the Nation’. It needs effective Planning Control Mechanism to maintain the environmental qualities.
Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) of Nigeria which is branded as the ‘Pride of the Nation’ continues to receive priority attention of the civilian administration (see plate 3). The administration inherited a master plan prepared for the FCT. The master plan was conceptualised along a district pattern of development segmented into four phases and designed for a target population of 3.2 million (Alhassan, 2006). The implementation of the Abuja Master Plan under the military administration suffered unimaginable indiscipline that almost derailed the good intention of the re-location of the federal capital out of Lagos (Olujimi, 1998). The implementation of the plan was characterised by illegal conversion of sland uses, construction of buildings on utility lines, inadequate setbacks observed by many structures, construction of sub-standard structures and continuous flooding of native villages that were already slated for relocation in the master plan with illegal housing development. During the tenure of El Rufai as the Minister of the FCT, sanity was re-installed into the implementation of the Abuja Master Plan: a situation that led to massive demolition of illegal structures that attracted public outcry which was not limited to Abuja alone but nation-wide (Olujimi and Ayeni, 2006). The questions that we need to ask now are (1) since the stepping aside of El Rufai from the position of the Minister of FCT, has the Authority been able to sustain the sanity in the war against the construction of illegal structures and basterdization of land uses?, and (2) Are the situations better-off in other state capitals, cities and towns?
6.0 MY RESEARCH CONTRIBUTIONS TO PHYSICAL PLANNING
Mr. Vice-Chancellor sir and distinguished audience; no doubt, the processes of migration and urbanisation are largely responsible for the economic, social and physical transformation of rural to urban settlements in Nigeria and they are associated with problems and challenges both at the origin, and at the destinations; and in, and between the surrounding areas (regions) of each of the points. These problems and challenges are numerous and they manifest at different scales in our environment. They pose as physical planning dilemma, which physical planning and planners are out to resolve.
I would like to list those aspects I have focused my research attention on, over the years with a view to resolving some of the planning dilemma. These are:
(i) Rural Infrastructure Planning and Development
(ii) Migrant Tenant Farmers and Settlement
(iii) Rural Dwellers and Health
(iv) Urban Management
(v) Planning Administration.
I. Rural Infrastructure Planning and Development:
In spite of the abundant resources in the rural areas in Nigeria, the areas for many years have not received the deserved attention in terms of policy formulation and implementation. This is an indication that the rural areas which currently accommodate over 60 percent of the Nigerian population had long been neglected (Olujimi 1988, 2003). However, the long neglect of the rural areas in Nigeria has always been associated with high poverty rate and under-development. It has also resulted in the classification of the zones as areas with high propensity for outmigration (Udo, 1975). Olujimi (1996) has also established the long neglect of the rural areas which has equally resulted in non-availability of rural infrastructure in the areas. The lack of rural infrastructure has been the bane of rural problem. Often times, governments on their own part have been hiding under the pretext that the scattered distribution pattern and the small population in the villages have not made the provision of rural infrastructure in villages a viable project.
Regrouping of Villages to Facilitate Provision of Rural Infrastucture: Olujimi (1988), in the study of Ajowa Village Regrouping Scheme has confirmed that late Hon. Olusa (as far back as 1954), identified lack of rural infrastructure as the basic problem in his locality. He noted that all his efforts to get school and health facilities sited in his constituency yielded no positive results because of the small population of each of the villages. However, through his untireless efforts, Hon. Olusa mobilised the village-heads of the 12 villages in part of his constituency and their subjects, and persuaded them on the need to relocate at Daja (one of the 12 villages) with a view to forming a formidable population that could support the provision of the lacking facilities. Hon. Olusa presented the request of his people to the Regional Government at Ibadan, and the Ministry of Lands at Ibadan was mandated to prepare the Ajowa Village Regrouping Scheme. The turning of the first sod was performed on December 15th 1955.
The evaluation of the Ajowa Regrouping Scheme in 1988 (33years after its implementation) recorded some successes, and identified few areas of failures (Olujimi, 1988, and 1991b). Seven of the 12 villages relocated completely to the Ajowa Scheme site, while Akunun moved partly and the four (4) remaining villages (Ibaramu, Gedegede, Igasi, and Etiti) never moved in spite of their initial support for the scheme. Ajowa was provided with some of the requested rural infrastructure earlier ahead of any of the non-participating villages e. g. 2 Primary schools (1956); Post Office (1957); 2 Public Hand-dug wells (1957); 1 Modern School (1958); 1 Dispensary/Maternity Centre (1959).
A lot of lessons could be learnt from Ajowa Village Regrouping scheme both by planners, policy-makers, and communities. The need for planners to identify proactive leaders among communities, who are committed to the yearning and aspirations of his people (like late Hon Olusa) becomes relevant. It was a people-initiated scheme and practical demonstration of ‘’planning with the people paradigm’’ and not ‘’planning for the people’’. It showed the commitment of the people to the success of the scheme, none of the people requested for payment of financial compensation for any of the unmoveable property.
It was purely a ‘’bottom-up approach’’ to rural development projects (Olujimi, 1991, Olujimi and Olanrewaju, 2003). The scheme equally sent signals on the need to define appropriate grouping criteria for rural development projects. The issue of not making sufficient provision for farmland at the relocation site and the cultural implication of not being able to present an overall ruler for the Ajowa Community remain unresolved.
Directorate of Food, Roads, and Rural Infrastructure (DFRRI) and Road Development: The urban-oriented development approaches of every successive administration in Nigeria since the colonial era have succeeded in creating a dichotomy between the urban and rural areas. In terms of the level of economic development, quality of life, access to opportunities, facilities and amenities, standard of living and general liveability, the gap between the urban and rural areas in Nigeria is wide (Olujimi, 1992; 2000d). The Federal government in 1986 started devoting serious attention to the issue of developing the rural areas by the establishment of the Directorate of Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructure (DFRRI). DFRRI was formally inaugurated by Gen. Babangida’s administration on February. 7th 1986, and backed-up by Decree No 4 of 1987. DFRRI was essentially saddled with the responsibilities of developing rural areas throughout Nigeria with a view to improving the quality of life of the rural masses by the provision of rural infrastructure (FGN, 1987). DFRRI took-off with N900 million grant being amount of money accrued to the federal government from the partial removal of subsidy on petroleum products. The Directorate was given political attention by its attachment at National level to the office of the President and headed by a member of Armed Forces Ruling Council (AFRC) Larry Koinyan. At the State and local government levels, DFRRI was attached to the offices of the State Military Governor and Local Government Council Chairman respectively.
The evaluation of the activities of the Directorate in the then Ondo State by Alao and Olujimi (1992) showed that DFRRI concentrated its activities only on rural roads and rural water schemes. The identification of rural roads and rural water schemes among the rural infrastructural needs of the rural dwellers in the state is commendable but the modalities for the implementation of the DFRRI projects were full of fraud and deceit (Olujimi and Alao, 1996). Contracts for the construction of rural roads and digging of hand-dug wells were awarded right in the presidency in Lagos to contractors who neither got to Akure the State capital nor knew any village in the state. Contract papers were sold and exchanged probably to the fifth contractor, who then executed the project on site. Often times, contracts for non-existing rural roads were awarded and paid for. The few executed rural road projects were without drains; while in some locations, hand-pumps were installed on the ground without dug-well. The scenario was not limited to Ondo State alone; it was a replica of what obtained throughout the Federation.
This was in sharp contrast to the provisions of the Decree establishing the Directorate; which assigned the power to identify rural project to the communities, as well as incorporated them as part of the monitoring committee at the local level. It equally indicated the funding formulae of 75, 15, 7 and 3 percent to federal, state, local government, and the benefitting community correspondingly. Disappointingly, it was only the federal government among the stakeholders that paid its funding allocation; all the other stakeholders including the state government never contributed its counterpart funding (Alao and Olujimi, 1992). Thus, it was a case of ‘he who pays the piper dictates the tune’’.
In spite of the short-comings identified in the implementation of the DFRRI rural road projects in the then Ondo State, the rural dwellers confirmed that the rural road projects in their various farming communities had significantly improved their farming activities and subsequently their income and standard of living (Olujimi and Alao, 1996; Olujimi, 200e). The high level of insincerity put into the award of DFRRI contracts and poor monitoring of its projects were among the factors responsible for the scrapping of the Directorate.
II. Migrant Tenant Farmers’ Settlements:
Before 1970s, provision of food as well as raw materials for the industries and the generation of foreign earnings in Nigeria were mainly from the agricultural sector. There were migrations of tenant farmers from zones with scarce farmland to the abundant fertile farmland zones in the country (Udo, 1975). The migrant tenant farmers established settlements and permanent farmlands in their host farming zones. Their contributions to the development of the localities of the host zones were quite significant.
Olujimi (2000c) studied the existing rural settlements in Owo Local Government Area of Ondo State established by migrant tenant farmers (the Ebiras) who migrated from Kogi state. In the study, the peculiarities of the settlements and the assessment of their contributions to the surrounding localities were carried out. The findings among others revealed that the main push factors responsible for their migration from their home districts were poor soils, harsh climatic conditions for food crop production and poor market for agricultural produce. The study identified 16 of such settlements and noted that the advent of Ebiras in Owo LGA dated back to the 1950s but the establishment of Ebira settlements started gaining prominence in 1960s. The settlements were located along major roads, and road junctions to facilitate the sales of their food crops.Thus, 7 located along Ifon – Owo road; 2 along Owo – Ute road, among others. The eagerness to locate their settlements along major roads is not unconnected with the level of deprivation suffered due to low prices offered for their produce at farm sites that were connected by poor roads (Olujimi, and Alao, 1996). On few occasions, the Ebira settlements were named after their landlord and about 98 percent of the sampled Ebiras were engaged in full-time farming while the remaining 2 percent were into trading in farm produce but still engaged on part-time farming. On the issue of access to farmland, they all confirmed unhindered access to farmland based on the condition that they were not allowed to plant cash crops. However, they confirmed payment of royalties (either in cash or kind) to their landlords on yearly basis and this has not caused any mis-understanding among them. The host communities accepted the positive contributions of the Ebiras to the growth and development of Owo. The symbiotic relationship may serve as an alternative model for parts of Nigeria where indigene-settler relationship is now problematic.
Housing in Ebira settlements paraded the worst of all the traits of rural housing (Olujimi, 2000f) (see plates 4 and 5). This cannot be regarded as the true reflection of their poverty level but the reflection of the attitude of the Ebiras regarding their settlements as purely farming environment. Despite the fact that the Ebiras regarded their existing settlements as farming environment and referred to their villages and towns in Kogi state as home; they still participate in community development projects in their farming communities, and contribute to Owo Development Projects Fund Raising Programmes under the aegis of ‘Avenabe Community Development Association’. The population of Ebiras in Owo LGA cannot be ignored in the political landscape of Ondo State (Olujimi, 2000d). It is significant to note that the present government in Ondo State has appointed an Ebira man as a Senior Special Assistant on ‘special interest’.
Plate 4: A Typical Ebira Housing Environment
at Elegbeka, along Owo- Ifon Road. Ondo State.
Plate 5: Another Ebira Housing Environment at Elegbeka; a makeshift
Structure used as Bathroom directly located in front of the Building.
Plate 6: A Typical Market day at Molege, directly operating on the
carriageway of Benin-Owo Highway, Ondo State.
Plate 7: A Typical Market scene at Elegbeka, an Ebira Settlement in
Owo Region, Ondo State.
In line with our observation from the study and in support of the relevance of rural roads improvement as a factor of rural development, Olujimi (2000e) called for the enforcement of 150-metre setback of the Molege Periodic Yam Market away from the road kerb since the market has gained the status of a regional market (see plates 6 and 7). This is to ensure that the locations of their markets promote safety of lives, commodities and goods of the patrons. The need for the government to provide more social facilities in the Ebira settlements like any other rural settlement is long overdue but rural dwellers must be ready to reciprocate by paying their income taxes as at when due with a view to guaranteeing the sustainability of the facilities.
III Rural Dwellers and Health
Governments and International organisations have long recognised the need to improve the health of the poor. In the 1970s, the World Health Organisation (WHO) led global effort to achieve ‘Health for all’ by the year 2000. More than 40 years later however, the goal remains elusive. The popular parlance that ‘health is wealth’ is based on the understanding that good health is a pre-condition for socio-political and economic development. Unfortunately, formal health services are simply unable to reach significant fraction of the people in most developing countries that are yearning for development of which Nigeria is one and in which rural dwellers are most affected.
Mr. Vice-Chancellor sir, my research attention under the ‘rural dwellers and health’ focused on distance travelled by rural dwellers for health care services; patronage pattern of health facilities by rural dwellers, and health-seeking behaviour of rural dwellers in Nigeria. Distance Travelled for Health Care Services: The scanty population in the rural settlements has been the basis for not providing welfare services in most of the rural settlements in developing countries yet these welfare services are central to good living and development of the people. Health service is one of such welfare services rendered in health care facilities located in few rural settlements and most urban centres. For the rural dwellers to enjoy health care services, they have to travel some distances to the locations of health care facilities (be at rural or urban centres). The problems confronting the rural dwellers in accessing health care services are enormous particularly in Nigeria.
Olujimi (2005b) examined the socio-economic factors in explaining distance travelled for health care services in Nigeria, with a focus on Owo region. Nine socio-economic variables that were fitted into the multiple regression model used in the analysis of data collected for the study are sex, age, marital status, educational background, occupation, income, religion, number of persons in the household, and number of years which the rural dwellers had spent in the locality. In the step-wise regression analysis, the order of significance of the variables influencing distance travelled by rural dwellers for health care services are length of stay in the villages, educational background, sex, age, and marital status of the rural dwellers were significant determinants of distance travelled for health care services by rural dwellers in Owo region. The R2 (0.843) showed that about 84.3 percent of the variations in distance travelled were jointly accounted for by the variables fitted into the model.
Length of stay of rural dwellers was the most crucial variable affecting the distance travelled by rural dwellers to receive health care services in Owo region. It has a regression estimate of 0.44. This implies that a year increase in length of stay in the village induces a 0.44 unit increase in distance travelled. The length of stay over the years provided very good background knowledge of the successful treatment history on available health facilities in and around the village (Olujimi et al, 2008). The limitations of the village-based health facilities would act as ‘push’ factors to the rural dwellers to seek health care elsewhere, particularly outside their villages of residence. Therefore, the longer the years of stay in any particular locality the better for the rural dwellers to know the level of competence of the health facilities in the village of their residence. This provided the basis on the part of the rural dweller to travel long distances for health care services.
These results have implications for the health and continuing patronage of rural dwellers to health care services in the region in particular and Nigeria in general. The length of stay in the rural locality (village) by the rural dwellers exhibited the most significant effect in influencing the distance travelled by rural dwellers for health care services in the region. The fact remains that the longer the stay of a rural dwellers in the rural community, the more such an individual is conversant with the treatment success rate of every health facility as well as being able to have adequate knowledge of quality of equipment and competence of staff in the health facilities in the area. Many studies have confirmed the non-readiness of rural dwellers to live in their rural communities as a result of the poor economic base, low level of rural infrastructure that exist in the rural communities and their vulnerability to becoming poor (Olujimi 1991, Christiaenen and Subbaro 2004). In order to promote encouraging stay (living) in the rural areas among rural dwellers, Olujimi (2000g, 2007b) called for a rural development policy that would make ample provision and sustainable maintenance of improved welfare facilities as well as revitalizing the economic-base of the rural areas in Nigeria a reality.
Patronage of Health Facilities by Rural Dwellers: Due to the low quality of available health care facilities in the rural areas, the rural dwellers also patronize health facilities located in their surrounding urban areas, where the qualities are considered higher (Olujimi et al, 2008). Although the socio-economic factors affecting the distance travelled by rural dwellers to utilise health care facilities had been established (Olujimi, 2005b); this is not sufficient to determine the level of patronage of health facilities by rural dwellers. In another study, Olujimi (2006a) identified 20 health care consumer variables to determine the significant factor affecting patronage of health facilities by the rural dwellers. The (independent) variables are sex, age, marital status, educational status, occupation, income, religion, number of persons in the household, length of stay in the village, nearest distance to health facility, distance travelled for health care, mode of travel, waiting time for public vehicles, road condition, transport cost, travel time, type of illness, waiting time at rural-based health facility for treatment, waiting time at urban-based health facility for treatment and percentage of income spent on health care. A step-wise multiple regression test was carried out and the results are as shown in Table 2.
Table 2: Step-wise Regression Results (Estimates) on Relationships between Level of Patronage of Health Facilities and Patronage Variables..
Variables code Regression coefficient Beta coefficient Absolute t-value Sig.
Constant 5.824 9.517 .000*
RELIG 1.033 0.433 7.474 .000*
EDU 0.505 -0.252 -4.690 .000*
INCOME 0.401 -0.214 -3.769 .000*
LENTLV 0.309 -0.226 -4.111 .000*
DISTFAC 0.0293 -0.169 -3.604 .000
MARITAL 0.493 -0.190 -3.980 000*
DISHCAR -0.246 0.208 3.638 000*
ILLYPE 0.111 -0.157 -2.931 0.004*
TRACOST -0.157 -0.105 -2.127 0.34**
R = 0.756
R2 = 0.731
R2 adjusted = 0.729
F 0.05, 9,338 = 16.80
N = 348
Source: Olujimi, (2003a) P169
** = Significant at 0.05 level
• = Significant at 0.01 level
The empirical result presented in Table 2 reveals that 73.1 percent of the variation in the level of patronage is jointly accounted for by the variables fitted into the model. The F-ratio (F).05 9,338) is significant. The empirical result of the step-wise regression test shows the order of importance of the independent variables as religion (RELIGION), distance travelled to receive health care services (DISHCAR), educational status of the rural dweller (EDU), number of years the rural dwellers have spent in the locality (LIVING), income (INCOME), marital status (MARITAL), nearest distance to health facility (DISTFAC), illness type (ILLTYPE), and transport cost (TRACOST),SS
Religion is the most crucial variable affecting level of patronage of health facilities by rural households in Owo region, with a regression estimate of 1.033 and significant at 0.01 level. The existence of a mission hospital in Owo region acts as a pull factor to members of the church and their relations to patronise the hospital. Furthermore, the relationships that exist on basis of religion among workers in non-mission health institutions and the prospective health consumers provide the assurance of prompt attention and fair consideration in medical bill (Egunjobi, 1983). This can sufficiently increase the level of patronage more so when such prospective health consumer is sure of fair and prompt attention from member(s) of his church working in the health institution. The status and the unit where such worker is working notwithstanding, but can still go through his colleagues in the relevant Units to render the required assistance to members of his/her church that are patronizing the health facility.
Educational background is next to religion in order of significance with the the regression estimate of 0.505. The influence of educational background on prospective health consumers from the rural areas cannot be underscored. It provides better understanding on where to go, what to do and at what section in any health facility location.
Health Seeking Behaviour of Rural Dwellers: The Nigerian National Health Policy was formulated to establish a comprehensive health care system, based on primary health care that is promotive, protective, preventive, restorative, and rehabilitative to every citizen of the country within the available resources so that individuals and communities are assured of productivity, social well-being and enjoyment of living. In order to achieve this goal, the health-seeking behaviour of the rural dwellers needs to be improved (FRN, 1988.) Illness behaviour incorporates all the forces, which shape decision-making on the utilisation of health care services, which essentially is referred to as health-seeking behaviour (Carr, 2004; Olujimi, 2007).
Olujimi (2000a, 2007b) also evaluated the health-seeking behaviour of the rural dwellers in Nigeria with a view to guiding in the planning and provision of health facilities in the rural areas. Different reasons were given by the rural dwellers in making a decision to seek health care services. These range from severity of the sickness, type of ailment and availability of money at the time of sickness among others. The study also noted that Nigerian rural dwellers seek expert help outside the household only after all available expertise within the immediate family must have been exhausted. The study also revealed that rural dwellers sought health care services from four major health care facility providers. These are self-medication provided by the patients themselves; modern health care facility providers, traditional health care providers, and spiritual health care facility providers. The involvement of the rural households in self-medication and the idea of crowning up all treatments received from modern healthcare facility provider with herbal treatments call for a proper health education. Hence the services of Social Workers and Community Health Workers should be engaged in the spread of health education particularly on the scourge of HIV/AIDS among other diseases.
In order to promote the effective coverage of the rural region by the Social Workers and the Community Health Workers, Olujimi (2000g, 2003a) has suggested the use of regional development approach. The application of the regional development approach entails identifying growth centres and points in the region and provide appropriate category of health facilities as well as providing inter- and intra-regional road linkages to facilitate movement of people and diffusion of health education.
VI. Urban Management
Mr. Vice-Chancellor sir, my research interest does not stop at addressing problems confronting the rural dwellers in their rural environment alone; I equally took interest in addressing the problems which the transformation of rural areas to urban areas have created in the Nigerian setting. The increasing population coupled with the depressed economic situation in Nigeria has continued to make intra-and inter-city movement of people and goods to rely heavily on public transport which is largely in the hands of the private sector. The growing importance of inter-city travels through public transport is associated with attendant problems of delays, insecurity of passenger’s goods, and lack of convenience for passenger’s comfort at motor parks; which are the points of origin and destination of travels. The intra-city travels cannot be spared from all these problems. However, they are predominantly characterised by frequent traffic hold-ups as a result of picking and dropping of passengers and goods at unauthorised points coupled with the activities of rival motor transport unions.
Olujimi (2000h) examined the locations and management of motor parks in Akure. Sixteen (16) motor parks that were strictly used by commercial vehicles were identified, out of which 10 were inter-town motor parks and only 5 of the motor parks were operated at authorised locations. The remaining 5 motor parks were operated at unauthorised locations, which were either privately leased or forcefully occupied and converted to motor parks by the National Union of Roads Transport Workers (NURTW) and Road Transport Employers Association of Nigeria (RTEAN). The remaining 6 motor parks were intra-city motor parks and they were operating at unauthorised locations.
The statutory role to grant approval for any type of physical development falls on the Town Planning Authority, under whose jurisdiction the location of such development is sited. The local government council authority never sought approval for any of the motor parks constructed at the authorised locations. Each of the motor parks can best be described as sheds, without any functional supporting infrastructure. The management of the motor parks was ceded to the NURTW, which in turn remits ‘peanut’ (i.e. ridiculously low amount of money) to the coffer of the local government council.
The unregulated sales of alcohol in all the motor parks, even throughout the south west (Oyedepo, 1981) is inimical to the safety of lives and properties of the travellers and the drivers. The study finally called on the local government council authority to be more proactive in the management and location of motor parks with a view to ensure that all motor parks are located and constructed in accordance with planning laws and regulations; rather than using planning to intimidate opposing faction of transport unions while the sales of Union tickets on the carriage ways should be stopped by the government. In addition, the management of the motor parks must be taken away from the transport unions.
In Nigeria, the local government is the nearest to the grassroot and obviously nearest to the problems of the people living in the urban centres than the other two tiers of government (i.e. Federal and State governments) in the Federation. The statutory functions of the local government as contained in the fourth schedule of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution made the local government responsible for the provision and maintenance of many of the social services which are most in demand by the urban population. The question bothering the minds of most physical planners in Nigeria is how well has the local government been able to manage the urban problems despite the opportunities available to the organ?
Olujimi (2000b, 2000c) examined the roles of the local government in the management of Nigerian towns and cities. The study among others identified the political incursion of the state governments into the statutory functions and finances of the local governments which had virtually rendered the local government idle and irrelevant in the management of Nigerian towns. The statutory allocation to the local government from the federation account often times are politically hijacked and spent by the state. It has thus, left the local government in a poor financial situation and inability to invest in the equipment and viable ventures that can further enhance their performance in city management.
The study also identified the non-establishment of Town Planning Authorities (TPAs) at the local government areas in most states of the federation; as a gross violation of the Urban and Regional Planning law. The non-establishment of TPAs has made the control of physical development ineffective. Olujimi (2000a) called for the statutory liberation of the local government from the ‘political imprisonment’ of the state government. This would ensure that local government authority has sufficient funds for further investment in manpower, recruitment and retaining of capable hands that could turn around the local government in the effective management of our towns and cities.
The increasing rate of urban growth in Nigeria can be physically seen in the sporadic development of Nigerian towns and cities engulfing peri-urban settlements and displacement of agricultural land uses (Olujimi, 2009b). A regular visit to cities like Ibadan and Lagos at interval of every three (3) months would present a very good picture of this. Studies (Fadayomi, 1988; Makinwa-Adebusoye, 1997; Adegeye and Olujimi, 2010) have confirmed that majority of the immigrants (particularly those from the rural areas coming to the urban centres to take up menial jobs) are either living in make-shift structures, illegally taken-over abandoned buildings, or illegally erected structures for their habitation at the peri-urban areas of cities and towns (Olujimi and Gbadamosi, 2006). This is because they could not afford the rents of befitting housing in the urban centres (Olujimi and Bello 2009; Olujimi 2010). Since urbanisation is inevitable, it becomes imperative to plan for it. Olujimi (2009a) has called the attention of the stakeholders in the Built environment to the need to manage urban sprawl in Nigeria. The preparation of Master Plan for towns and cities as planning tool (document) to guide their growth pre-2000s was widely popularised by Ilesanmi (1998) but the peculiarities of urbanisation in Nigerian towns and cities have attracted the need for the modifications in the approach of the preparation of the master plan (Aribigbola, 2008, Olujimi, 1998b, 2003a, 2009b). It is believed that the environment is dynamic and a lot of changes are taking place globally which Nigerian environment cannot be insulated from. Therefore, this calls for regular review of the curriculum of planning courses at different levels to cope with emerging challenges in the planning practice (Olujimi, 1999; 2007).
In the management of Nigerian towns and cities, the issue of illegal structures and slum formation are of great concern to Town Planners (Olujimi, 2008). The belief of many developers is that they can use their land in ‘’any manner, any form, anyhow’’ even when it will cause discomfort to themselves, to their neighbours and the public at large (Olujimi, 1997). Olujimi and Fashuyi (2004) studied the types and distribution of illegal structures in Akure metropolis and the findings among others revealed the existence of six different types of illegal structures. These are (1) illegal conversion of uses in approved structures, (2) illegal extension of structures, (3) illegal conversion and extension of structures, (4) structures constructed on road setbacks and river bank etc. (5) rolls of shops constructed directly in front of existing buildings without adequate setbacks, and (6) buildings without approved planning permit (see Table 3). One cannot completely absolve the administrative roles of the Town Planners that are working in the Ministry of Physical Planning and Urban Development in the existence of these illegal structures but the ‘political will’ to check the construction of the illegal structures had been very weak. For example, an administration in Ondo State took a step to remove illegal structures in Akure in 2004. Having realised the extent of dent the demolition exercise would cause, the government quickly discontinued with the demolition exercise and made a public statement promising payment of compensation to developers of illegal structures whose structures had been demolished.
Table 3` Types of Illegal Structures in Akure (% in parenthesis)
Type of Illegal Structure
Zone 1 Zone II Zone III Total
Illegal Conversion of uses in approved bldgs 27(31.8) 10(14.3) 2(3.6) 39(18.5)
Illegal Extension of Structures 20(23.5) 18(25.7) 14(25.5) 52(24.8)
Illegal Conversion & Extension of Structure 6(7.1) 5(7.1) 5(9.1) 16(7.6)
Structure Constructed on road setback/ River Banks and Open Space 12(14.1) 20(28.6) 20(36.4) 52(24.8)
Roll of shops constructed directly in front of Existing buildings without adequate setbacks 3(3.5) 4(5.7) 2(3.6) 9(4.3)
Buildings without approved plan 17(20.0) 13(18.6) 12(21.8) 42(20.0)
Sources: Olujimi and Fashuyi, (2004). P 86.
Zone I= Core Area of Akure;
Zone II=Areas encircled by Hospital rd/Iro rd/ Isikan/to Champion/Ilesa rd//Owo rd/Sch Agric/A Div.
Zone III= All other areas not covered by the zones I and II.
Source: The Hope Newspaper, April 28th –May 4th 2004 Edition, P40
Plate 7: Illegal Structures along Ondo Road, Akure, demolished by the then
Department of Town Planning, Ondo State Ministry of Works and Housing, Akure.
The implication of the statement was that barely two weeks after the demolition exercise; most of the demolished illegal structures were solidly reconstructed at their original sites. However, the operational situation was different in Abuja where the FCDA took a firm decision of restoring the provision of the master plan for the city and removed all the illegal uses and structures. Mr. Vice-Chancellor sir, and distinguished audience, we can see the extent to which physical planning could be politically weakened even where the planning laws and regulations are available to give statutory backing.
The protection and enhancement of common environmental resources cannot be ignored in the management of Nigerian urban centres. Olujimi (1990) examined the usage of streams and rivers in Nigerian urban centres. The study among others revealed that they were used as domestic water, waste disposal, urban agriculture and the banks and floodable plain served as building sites. Urban agriculture is permissible under very close supervision of the Development Control Unit while the remaining uses pose threat to man and the environment (Okoko and Olujimi, 2003). Olujimi (2003b, 2006c) ascribed the roles of protecting the streams and the rivers in the urban centres to the communities and suggested the use of planning advocacy in the spread of environmental education.
V. Planning Administration
Mr. Vice-Chancellor sir, and distinguished audience, we should not be surprised to hear that ‘’planning is politics’’ because decisions in physical planning are substantially influenced by political decisions and Town Planners need ‘political will’ to get planning proposals implemented. Therefore, Town Planners are involved in what is referred to as ‘’politics of planning’’ which is strictly in the domain of planning administration. Olujimi (1993) evaluated planning administration in Nigeria with a focus on the then Ondo State. The findings of the study among others identified shortage of physical planning staff, unhealthy rivalry between physical planning agencies, low level of equipment and out-dated planning laws. The study suggested among others the need to take planning to the doorsteps of the people at the grassroots by allocating planning responsibilities to the local government and embarking on aggressive enlightenment among stakeholders to make physical planning acceptable. After six (6) years, the planning law in the state was put in place (ODSG, Edit No. 3 of 1999) but to-date major provisions of the law are yet to be implemented and it is under review.
One cannot but commend the effort of the present administration in Ondo State for the establishment of Ministry of Physical Planning and Urban Development. At the inception of the Ministry, a stakeholders’ forum was convened and suggestions on the modalities for the administration of physical planning in the state were made (Olujimi, 2009b). The on-going removal of illegal structures in parts of Akure, the state capital is a bold step taken by the present administration. Ekiti State has equally followed suit and Edo State is currently putting the modalities in place while Akwa Ibom State has announced its intension and Lagos State took the lead years back and the impact on the economy, social and physical outlook of the state are available for people to see.
7. 0 CONCLUDING REMARKS AND RECOMMENDATIONS:
Mr. Vice-Chancellor sir, and distinguished audience, as towns and cities grow, the inter-dependence between them and the rural settlements also increase. The problems of urban areas could no more be viewed in isolation and have to be necessarily related to the surrounding rural areas and the regional matrix. This has been the focus of this lecture ‘’From Rural to Urban’’. In the lecture I have discussed the evolution of man and classified his settlements to rural and urban, and examined their peculiarities. I have equally discussed the processes that influenced the growth and interactions between them and assessed the performance of physical planning in the management of the problems and challenges facing the settlements. I have also presented the account of few of my research efforts at addressing the problems confronting urban and rural settlements in Nigeria. Therefore, I want to present my recommendations.
1. Investment in infrastructure is vital, if Nigerian villages, towns and cities are to avoid health and environmental problems and make the best out of the economic opportunities they present. This requires substantial funding. The Pension Fund Administrators should be mandated by the Federal government through the Central Bank of Nigeria to create Infrastructure Development and Maintenance Loan (IDML) from the pool of un-utilised fund at reduced interest rate for the states and local government councils. The state and local governments should be guaranteed by the federal government and the loan should be used solely for the provision of new infrastructure, maintenance of existing infrastructure, and repairs of degraded infrastructure. The usage of the loan should be closely monitored by the anti-graft agencies. However, the beneficiaries (i.e. the people) must be ready to pay users’ charges on the infrastructure.
2. The unnecessary stress created by immigrants on urban centres and the depopulation of rural settlements through rural-urban migration calls for an Integrated Physical Planning and Development (IPPD) approach to the development of urban region. It is an approach that would delineate the urban region with the integration of its rural hinterland and inject development impulses with deserved emphasis on the development of the rural settlements.
3. The reality in the global trend is that city planning is not a luxury any more but a necessity. Nigeria cannot afford to be left behind. Government at different levels should give priority attention to budgetary allocation and disbursement of funds to the implementation of physical planning proposals and back-up the enforcement of planning laws and regulations with the deserved ‘political will’.
4. The relevance of up-to-date planning data in the preparation of functional and reliable physical planning proposals cannot be underrated. Population census figures fall into this category. A situation where 2006 National Population Census figures on every settlement have not been released (6) six years after the exercise is frustrating, embarrassing and it gives room for suspicion. Federal government should mandate the National Population Commission to release the details for the purpose of physical planning and economic development.
5. The sporadic development of towns and cities that are characterised by illegal structures should be intensively monitored through the use of Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) by the Physical Planners. The Nigerian Institute of Town Planners through its Mandatory Continuous Professional Development Programme (MCPDP) should organise workshops to develop the capacity of the practising physical planners in the field.
6. Our environment is dynamic and the legal instrument to manage the environment should continuously exhibit the dynamism it deserves. Therefore, planning laws, regulations and planning standards should be reviewed periodically to reflect the state of the art in physical planning and tackle the emerging environmental challenges in the rural and urban areas
7. The education and training of physical planners must key into the dynamism of our environment. The National Universities Commissions, National Board for Technical Education, the Town Planners Registration Council, and the Nigerian Institute of Town Planners must work together to review the curricula for the training of different cadres of personnel involved in physical planning in Nigeria.
8. Physical planners must step up their advocacy and change the wrong and derogatory perception which the public has about physical planning. Physical planning is not about demolition of buildings or approval of illegality. It is about harmonious arrangement of uses and enhancement of the value of uses to promote healthy living environment and sustainable development. Therefore, physical planners as members of the Institute, and as individual should embark on aggressive environmental education for all the stakeholders.
9. The cost of governance at the state and local government levels in Nigeria is becoming burdensome which is preventing these institutions from embarking on meaningful urban management projects. The revenue allocation formula should be reviewed in favour of the states and local government councils to reflect true federalism. The state governments should stop encroaching on the functions of local government councils. This has deprived the local government councils of their financial resources.
10. The paradox where there are many unemployed Town Planners in Nigeria where the available number of Town Planners are not sufficient to provide the required physical planning services is very disheartening. Government at different levels should lift the embargo placed on employment of professionals in the built environment so that more Town Planners can be employed.
11. The devastating effects of flooding due to unprecedented increase in rainfall and the unusual (excessive) heat experienced during the dry season in our cities and towns is an indication of climate change. This calls for the acquisition of knowledge in climate change and city management by Town planners through short courses to be jointly sponsored by the NITP and TOPREC.
12. In Nigerian Universities, research efforts in Physical Planning need to be properly coordinated to avoid duplication of efforts, encourage research collaboration and promote utilisation of research outputs. The Nigerian Institute of Town Planners should facilitate the establishment of the Nigerian Association of Town Planning Educators (NATPED). The Association is expected to bring all the planning lecturers together with a view to achieving this laudable intension.
Finally, Mr. Vice-Chancellor sir, my optimism about sustainable development of both rural and urban areas in Nigeria through physical planning is predicated on the hope for political stability devoid of militia insurgency and kidnapping, efficient resource utilisation, and government commitment to the enforcement of planning regulations with the desired ‘’political will’’ rather than using physical planning as instrument of political oppression and victimisation. With all these suggestions, Nigerian physical environment will improve and promote economic and social development; and physical planning will cease to be in dilemma.
Mr. Vice-chancellor sir, my parents never had the opportunity of being registered as pupils in any primary school throughout their life time but I stand before this distinguished audience today as a Professor of Urban and Regional Planning and delivered the 63rd Inaugural Lecture of this University. It is not by my power and might but by the merciful grace of GOD ALMIGHTY, to whom I return all the honour and glory. I am very grateful to God, the giver of life, my Alpha and Omega, the possibility God and God that answers by fire; shall continue to be my God forever and ever amen.
I want to thank most sincerely my parents for their love and the path they laid my legs on. My father, late Mr. Joseph Olujimi lived a short life but highly memorable amongst his peers. Although he did not live to witness any of his children graduating from any school but the event of today brings to memory the passion he had for education during his life time. Daddy, continue to rest in the bosom of your LORD. My mother Chief (Mrs) Lydia Olujimi, I could remember that evening when my father died, it was as if the ‘’heaven had closed’’ but after a while she summed up courage and she solidly believed and trusted in God; and bore the burden of raising me and my junior ones. Although she witnessed my doctoral graduation ceremony and I can still remember how she recounted her past ordeals on the occasion and busted into tears of joy, but today I would have loved to see her on the seat to witness this occasion but God knows the best. Mama mi continue to rest in the bosom of the LORD, your God.
I want to place on record the role played by organisations, institutions and agencies and individuals in my working and academic career. I thank the management of Ondo State Polytechnic, Owo for the Staff Development Programme I enjoyed for my Master Degree Programme; and the research grant I received from the institution. The Management of the Federal University of Technology, Akure is acknowledged for the Staff Development Programme I enjoyed for my Doctoral degree programme, research grants, sponsorships at conferences and payments of page charges for many of my journal publications during the early stage of my research drive. I appreciate the Rockefeller Foundations for the travelling grant to attend conferences of the Association of African Planning Schools at different times, and the Educational Trust Fund (ETF) research grants for my on-going research.
I want to thank and appreciate all my teachers at all levels of my education. At Anglican Grammar School, Igbara-Oke, I thank Mr. Ade Iluyemi, who was the principal of the school when I was given double promotion from class one to three. At the Polytechnic, Ibadan, I want to specially appreciate Ven. (Dr) Okunade Modupe who engaged me during my first vacation as a planning student in 1977, and brought me into academics by facilitating my appointment as lecturer III in the Ondo State Polytechnic, Owo in 1982.
At the University of Ibadan, I want to thank Prof. M.O. Filani, the Dean of the Faculty of the Social Sciences during the period I was admitted into the Master degree programme in the university and my special appreciation to my ‘BIG BROTHERS’ and academic mentors at the Centre for Urban and Regional Planning, University of Ibadan. They are Profs Layi Egunjobi and Tunde Agbola. At the age I was pursuing my Master degree, they made academics pleasantly interesting and attractively inviting to me. Ever since, the relationships continue to wax stronger and I would forever remain grateful to both of them. I appreciate Prof. Femi Olokesusi; who I first met at NISER in 1988 and ever since, took me as his younger brother. Likewise are Mr. and Mrs. Kehinde Alao.
The gratitude would not be complete by appreciating my teachers alone without identifying with my classmates and schoolmates at various levels of my education that made the learning environment competitive and inviting. At the secondary school, I appreciate Mr. Idowu Ayininunola (formerly of Union Bank), Messers Arijeloye, Ogunlusi, Olatunbosun, Dr. Rotimi Fasidi, Dr. Odetayo and Imafidan Aloba–Wright (USA). The relationships we established in 1970, still continue till today. At the Polytechnic, Ibadan I want to appreciate my schoolmates (Arc) Adeyemi Adegboye (Ijeda-Ijesha), Pastor Olagundoye, Oyedele, Okorodike, Dr. Bolanle Wahab, Arc. Adegbehingbe, Jaiye Ayodele, the Amudipes (Twin brothers), late Kuyinun, my teacher and brother late Ogunsusi (Oscar Joe). At the University of Ibadan, I want to appreciate Dr. Akinbanjo, B.Ojo (Philosopher), Jegede, Adelusi, Olaniyan and Kayode.
Mr. Vice-chancellor sir, permit me to identify myself with the ‘’town planning family’’ at international, national, and state levels. I want to express my profound gratitude to my colleagues at the Commonwealth Association of Planners (CAP) the president Mrs. Christine Platt, and David Twigg group leader of ‘the Planning Law and Food Security Group’ where I am currently serving as Nigerian representative. I also want to appreciate my colleagues at the Association of African Planning Schools (AAPS) especially Prof. Vanessa Watson and Dr. Nancy Odendal for the good networking they are promoting among planning teachers in Africa.
At the national level, I want to appreciate the current President of Nigerian Institute of Town Planners TPL Kabri Yari fnitp, for the effective re-awaking he is bringing into all spheres of planning in Nigeria. I equally want to show appreciation to the past presidents of the Institute especially fellows Makinde, Ajayi, Odimuko, Wahab Kadri; and current and past presidents of Town Planners Registration Council of Nigeria (TOPREC) Chief Kumapayi, and Ndirmibula respectively. I acknowledge the presence at this lecture, the Chairmen (both past and present), and members of Ondo State Chapter and other state chapters of the Institute especially Ekiti and Lagos States. The advice and support I received from Baba Ogundare, Mr Olofin, Faseki and Akin Aladegboye would not be forgotten during the time I served as the Chairman of the NITP Ondo State chapter. The encouragement of the following planning colleagues in the academica is also appreciated. They are Profs J. Fadare, I.A. Okewole, N. Tanimowo, Kayode Oyesiku, Leke Oduwaye, C.O. Olatubara, Wole Morenikeji and Ekpo. Others are Drs Omisore, A. Abegunde, A. Aribigbola and my colleagues at the Department of Geography and Planning at Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko and Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo. I want to specially thank Prof. Lasun Olayiwola of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife; who co-supervised my doctoral research. Sir, your brotherly love and enviable contribution to the output of the research would not be forgotten.
My profound gratitude goes to my spiritual fathers, brethren and sisters among who are Revd Fr. Fisayo Oluwabusuyi, Pastor (Dr.) Yemi Olufarati, Pastor D. Folahanmi, Evang. Philips, Pastor (Prof) Ben Adewuyi, Pastor Segun Kayode, Pastor Gbenga Olu Stephen, Pastor Samuel MFM Oba-Ile, and all pastors at the MFM Regional Headquarters, Akure, Mr. Kayode, Mr. Amaraka and Mrs Akerele (Feotamy). I thank members of Welfare Group, and Men Fellowship, MFM Regional Headquarters, Akure for their prayers and support.
Back at FUTA, I want to express my profound gratitude to the Chairman of this occasion and the current Vice-Chancellor, Prof. A.M. Balogun. I cherish your administrative style that is characterised by open mindedness and the zeal to move FUTA to enviable height. Sir, your appointment as FUTA Vice-Chancellor was just a beginning; I pray that international appointments shall come your way soonest in Jesus Name. I cannot but acknowledge the good works of the past Vice-chancellors beginning with Profs Idibiye-Francis, Ilemobade, Kolawole, Adeyemi, to Adeniyi. Mr. Vice-chancellor sir, permit me to single out Prof. Adeniyi for the physical transformation of FUTA campus and making the staff to believe in themselves through hard-work and oneness. He is really a great man. I appreciate the past registrars of the University Mr. Osanyinbi, Adebayo, and Dr (Mrs) Oyebade and the current University management team Profs Z. A. Adeyewa DVC (Academics), J. A. Fadamiaro DVC (Development), the Registrar Dr. (Mrs) M. Ajayi, the Bursar Mr. R.A. Aladetimi and the University librarian Mr. Z Oguntuase.
At the school of Environmental Technology, I want to specially thank Prof. E.A. Adeyemi, the founding father of the School for his visionary leadership and for bringing us up and continuously showing us the way. I have no word strong enough to acknowledge the lead which Prof. Olanrewaju has given to me over many years. He was the Head of Department of Urban and Regional Planning when I was appointed into the University in 1997 and he supervised my Ph.D research. His contribution to my life would never be forgotten by me and my family. I appreciate Prof Bunmi Fasakin, for his administrative style that challenged me academically and today it has successfully paid-off. I owe a great measure of appreciation to other colleagues in the School Profs D.R. Ogunsemi (current Dean of the School), S. Fatuyi, R.S. Ogunduyile, E.E. Okoko, O.Ogunsote, A.S. Asaju, T.O. Arayela, A.O. Olotuah, E.B. Ojo, T.L. Akinbogun, Drs, M.O. Bello, O.B. Akinbamijo, J.O. Basorun, M.A. Oyinloye, I.O. Aje, A.A. Taiwo, Y.M.B. Adedeji, G. Fadairo, A.O. Aiyetan, Dr. (Mrs) V.A. Bello, Dunni Aderibigbe and Mrs. D.A. Ayeni for their association and interest in me. At the Department of Urban and Regional Planning, I want to specially appreciate Dr. Bayo Emmanuel, the first Ph.D candidate I supervised and an amiable research partner. I commend his uprightness, dedication to duties and the fear of God in him. I thank Mr. J. O. Faseun, a school mate for his support at all times and other staff and students of the Department for their cooperation and making the working environment in the Department very peaceful.
It is my greatest pleasure to appreciate Profs C.O. Ademosun, F.C. Adetuyi, R.O. Abiola, F.A. Akinyosoye, Sanmi Oshodi and his wife; Olusi, F.A. Ilesanmi, E.A. Aderinola, Kayode Ogunmoyela, Aboluwoye, J.S. Ojo, J.B. Fasakin, M.A. Oguntuase, S.A. Ola, J.A. Adekoya, C.O. Adedire, K. Ipinmoroti (of blessed memory), S.A. Ogunlowo, O.P. Fapetu and Drs Bayo Aborisade, P.A. Enikanselu, A.O. Fasoranbaku, V.O. Asekunowo, S. Manuwa, Messers Falana, A.A. Bobola, Chief Omololu Adegbenro, Mrs. A.O. Adebayo, Mrs. O.A. Famose, Mrs. B.O. Aladeniyi and B.A. Erinle for their interest in my progress.
My sincere gratitude goes to my brothers and sisters right at home for their enviable leadership and encouragement giving to us (the junior ones) at Igbara-Oke. They are Profs Funso Adu, Taiwo Ajayi, Funmi Fasidi, Ikotun, Babalola, Aloba, Adebayo and Prof. (Mrs) Akinwumi. Others are Chief Fasae, Chief Olofin Sapetu, Mr and Mrs J.S. Ilori, Mr. Oladapo, Prestige Dada Ikotun, Barr. Awopeju, and Oluwadare Kikiowo. I want to specially acknowledge a friend to my late father, who single-handedly managed the small cocoa plantaintion I inherited from my late father to finance my education during the most critical period of my life. He is late Chief T.G.F. Popo-Ola, he really demonstrated that he was a father in million and a friend indeed to my late father.
I owe a great deal of gratitude to my siblings for their love. They are Chief Olu Ajayi, Ajanaku Ajayi, Bayo Ogunlusi, Biodun Ojo, Sola Olagundoye, Bola Akinnubi, Tunde Olujimi, Morakinyo Adesina, Banji Braimoh, Engr. Dapo and Esther Olagbaiye, Mrs Elizabeth Taiwo and Mama Ajoke Adetuyo. I remember my late aunts Mrs Adesola Ogunlusi, and Beatrice Dupe Ojo for the support they gave to me during their life time.
I want to acknowledge the love I received from my friends messers Julius Folorunso Omoniyi, Igbekele Olosu, Ojo Owoeye, Philip Ibukun, Ayodele David, Bldr. Tunde Lasabi and my parents-in-laws Agbelese and Oyedele families, Fagbadegun family and Akingbesote family; I thank member of Club 20 Area Landlords’ Association of the GRA, along Ilesha road, Akure for the good neighbourliness my family has been enjoying with them.
I am very grateful to my adopted children Engr. Tunji Folorunso and ‘’Ayaba’ Mary Akingbosote for their love and sincerity. To my children Funmi, Fisayo, Seye and Seyi; I thank God for your lives and the peace of mind I enjoy over all of you; and to my grandchildren Toluwanimi and Oluwatobiloba all of you are pleasantly wonderful. Finally, let me express my sincere appreciation to my co-achiever, confidant, investment partner and consultant; counsellor, friend, mother and God given wife Ayodelemi Olujimi. You made me to know God and I have seen the results and I enjoy serving God. I pray that God will grant you good health and long life to enjoy the fruits of your labour.
Mr. Vice-chancellor sir, distinguished guests, Ladies and gentlemen, I thank you all for listening.
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